Urgenda and the State both agree that the emission of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, entails serious risks for life on earth. Urgenda therefore wants the State to take action to achieve lower emissions sooner than within the time frame currently envisaged by the State. The Hague Court of Appeal shares Urgenda’s view on this matter. Considering the great dangers that are likely to occur, more ambitious measures have to be taken in the short term to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to protect the life and family life of citizens in the Netherlands. The Court of Appeal has based its ruling on the State’s legal duty to ensure the protection of the life and family life of citizens, also in the long term. This legal duty is enshrined in the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR).